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ACCURACY: THE INSIDE STORY
Accuracy from the First Part
Next Generation CNC Controls
Guest Appearance - Energy Efficiency of Machine Tools
Dr. Jens Kummetz - Head of Application Development
In many branches of the investment goods industry, energy efficiency has developed into an important product characteristic. Geared motors for materials handling technology have been divided into efficiency classes for some time now. Machine tools comprise numerous motors and auxiliary components whose energy consumption can vary strongly during operation. The main spindle drive, for example, and the coolant system work near their rated power during roughing with a high material removal rate, while the power consumption during finishing is significantly lower. Potential savings result with regard to the nonproductive phases as auxiliary components like hydraulic or pneumatic components generate a significant base consumption of energy. Possibilities for reducing this base load can be found in proper energy management. Consumers are specifically switched off by the machine control in nonproductive phases. Measures to support the operator during setup also increase energy efficiency, because they shorten nonproductive phases and reduce the influence of the base load. Scrap inevitably increases energy consumption per good part. Manufacturing with accuracy starting from the very first part can therefore become a decisive factor for the energy efficiency of a machine tool. Machine designs with balanced thermal behavior and precise position measuring technology have a distinct advantage here.
As an R&D manager for systems integration, his field of activities covers methods for system analysis and design like FEM, modal analysis and numerical simulation of high order systems with position controlled multi axis actuation.
|HEIDENHAIN Corporation Headquarters|
With the TNC 620 with digital drive control, HEIDENHAIN Corporation introduces an exciting new control for use on both milling machines and machining centers with up to 5 axes plus spindle. This new TNC is based on an innovative software platform NC Kernel. Once again proving its ability to offer a conversationally friendly control, HEIDENHAIN offers its TNC 620 equipped for handling even very complicated tasks, including those that that use swivel and rotary axes. And for simultaneous machining with up to five axes, the TNC 620 offers special functions that produce optimal machining results. Dynamic look-ahead, algorithms for jerk limitation and intelligent motion control are the type of available functions that enable the TNC 620 to handle even very stringent requirements on the surface of a finished workpiece. It is important to note that the main computer, controller unit, and other components of the HEIDENHAIN TNC 620 control system feature a new, powerful interface: HSCI (HEIDENHAIN Serial Controller Interface). HSCI is based on the 100BaseT Ethernet standard so well known in network connections. This helps make short cycle times for data transfer possible, considerably reduces cable costs and eases installation. Together with the new, purely digital EnDat 2.2 encoder interface, the TNC 620 has a uniformly digital design from the main computer to the encoder. Unlike many of its competitors, the main computer of the TNC 620 is housed inside the operating panel, behind the TFT flat-panel display. Because of this, complicated wiring into the electrical box is a thing of the past. Lastly, this TNC 620 can be customized with select functions from many available options to meet the needs of the customer; from very simple to highly complex machine applications.
With the introduction of the TS 740 infrared touch probe, HEIDENHAIN offers machine tool users the opportunity to perform measuring tasks that require an especially high probing accuracy and repeatability. Boasting a probing accuracy of < ± 1 µm and a repeatability factor of 2 ó < 0.25 µm, the TS 740 workpiece touch probe is one of the most accurate 3D touch probes for machine tools in the market today. To do this, the HEIDENHAIN TS 740 touch probe features a new sensor whose principle of function is completely different from that of the optical sensor of their standard touch probes. The new technology involves the use of three sensor elements. When probing a workpiece, the stylus is deflected so that a force acts on these elements. This results in the generation of charges that are detected by the electronics and converted into trigger signals. This system allows for more accurate results. Also in spite of its low probing forces, the TS 740 is designed in such a way that it is well suited for use in modern machine tools with a fast tool changer. Rapid acceleration or deceleration does not cause uncontrolled trigger signals, as is common with those with low probing forces that are typically sensitive to mechanical disturbances.
Now more can enjoy the benefits of HEIDENHAIN's 3-D touch trigger probes as they can now be used on many CNC controls for milling, drilling and boring machines, and machining centers. This is possible through the use of HEIDENHAIN's new UTI 192 Universal Touch Probe Interface making these probes compatible with CNC controls with a fast switching input. The UTI 192 supports two HEIDENHAIN 3-D touch probes: TT tool touch probes and TS workpiece touch probes. This interface converts the output signals of the HEIDENHAIN 3-D touch probe to the machine control signals in accordance with IEC 61 131-2. Of course, the probing functions actually available on the machine depend on the software cycles implemented in the respective control. HEIDENHAIN now offers cycles for automatic alignment and measurement of workpieces, workpiece presetting, and tool measurement on non-TNC controls. The UTI 192 features a compact design. It can be quickly fastened on a standard mounting rail in the electrical cabinet, and features a wide range of interfacing possibilities so that the touch probes can easily be connected to the different controls. It is possible, for example, to configure the output signals as active-high or active-low. In addition, it is possible to connect the inputs or outputs with logical operations. The UTI also provides various routines for switching on the HEIDENHAIN TS 440 and TS 640 infrared touch probes, such as by a machine command or autonomously by the UTI 192. The UTI 192 is provided with LEDs for configuration and easy servicing for initial operation. The LEDs indicate whether power is on and show the levels of the inputs and outputs.
HEIDENHAIN?s MANUALplus NCs have been proving themselves in daily use on action-oriented lathes for many years now, but with the introduction of the new MANUALplus 620, HEIDENHAIN marks another step toward simple and efficient programming. With this new control and its increased functions, now both cycle and CNC lathes can effectively be handled. At the heart of the new MANUALplus 620 is a new NC kernel. With it, the cycle programming feature of this control enables the machinist to quickly and efficiently program and machine workpieces without having to write NC programs. A key addition to this control is the new programming mode ?Smart.Turn?. This new mode allows users another friendly interface, allowing inputs of working blocks simply and quickly. Smart.Turn is intended to supplement programming on cycle based lathes, though also allows work with standard CNC lathes ? a double bonus. All in all, the MANUALplus 620 provides three programming modes for the user: cycle programming, smart.Turn programming and DIN PLUS programming. In all programming modes, contours can be described with ICP interactive graphics (Interactive Contour Programming). The MANUALplus 620 is designed for lathes with spindle, one slide (X and Z axis), one C axis or one position able spindle and a driven tool. It is suited for use on horizontal and vertical lathes (vertical boring and turning mills). The MANUALplus supports simple tool holders (e.g. Multifix) and tool turrets. On horizontal lathes, the tool carrier can be located in front of or behind the workpiece. The MANUALplus also supports systems with two tool carriers on one slide. This new control also includes the implementation of a tool database (up to 250 tools) and a technology database. The MANUALplus 620, as a whole, is designed as an integrated digital servo-drive control, though the spindles and/or axes can also be controlled by analog speed command interfaces as well.
Metrology Software Eases 2D, 3D Measuring
Heidenhain’s PC-based Quadra-Chek IK 5000 version 3.0.0 metrology software is designed to enable more convenient 2D and 3D measuring tasks.
Encoder Interface Box Increases Controls Compatibility
Heidenhain’s EIB 2391S encoder interface box is designed to increase encoder compatibility with Siemens controls.
Touch Probes Use Both Radio and Infrared Signals
Two touch probes from Heidenhain employ what the company describes as hybrid technology, using both radio and infrared signal transmission.
Metrology DRO for Manual Measurement Systems
The ND 120 Quadra-Chek metrology digital readout (DRO) from Heidenhain is designed for manual measuring machines such as optical comparators and measuring microscopes.
Linear Scale for Long Machine Tool Axes
Heidenhain’s LC 200 linear scale is designed for linear measurement on machine tool axes ranging to 28 m (almost 92 ft.), and it can be used with linear motors.
DROs Feature New LED Screens
Heidenhain has upgraded its line of metrology digital readouts (DROs) to include LED screens.
Machining Center Control Offers Optional Turning Functions
Minimizing setup time by combining machining operations is a priority for many manufacturers, and the technology to achieve this is part of what they’re looking for at the show. Heidenhain says one of the keys to this is the CNC.
TNC Control Can Perform Multi-Operation Machining
The TNC 640 control is Heidenhain’s first milling control is offered with optional turning, enabling it to perform multi-operation machining.
Metrology Software Increases Measuring Machines Functionality
Heidenhain’s Quadra-Chek metrology software is designed to provide advanced functionality for inspection measurement machines.
CNC Mill Control Features Touch-Screen Interface
The Acu-Rite 3500i CNC control from Heidenhain features a touchscreen operator interface designed to optimize program navigation, editing, creation and verification.
Heidenhain Launches CNC Machining Magazine
Heiedenhain (Schaumburg, Illinois), a manufacturer of precision measurement and control equipment, announces the official North American introduction of Klartext – News from the World of Heidenhain Controls, a magazine focused on CNC control issues relevant to today’s shop owners, managers and machinists. Already well-established in Europe, Klartext (meaning “clear text”) will cover topics including industry focuses on the medical, automotive and aerospace markets; features on machine optimization/compensation, five-axis machining and high speed machining; and relevant case histories; among others. The publication is now available free to Norht American businesses.
A Model Machine for Titanium
Researchers develop a machine tool that controls vibration to mill titanium more productively. The machine relies on guideway systems delivering stiffness that is literally infinite.
No-Drift, Absolute Gaging Package
Heidenhain has coupled its new Acanto absolute length gage with its ND 2100G Gage-Chek metrology readouts to create a package for fixed gaging applications.
Absolute Encoder for Electric Motors
Heidenhain says its ECI 119 absolute, inductive rotary encoder’s feature a low profile (19-mm height, 92-mm OD) and large through shaft (50, 38 or 30 mm) make it suited for electric motors in the electronics and packaging industries; general automation; robotics; plastic molding machines; and swivel and tilting axes.
Length Gages Provide a Stable Environment
Characterized by absolute position value formation, Heidenhain’s Acanto series of length gages are suited for use in production-related metrology, multipoint inspection apparatuses and automated inspection equipment.
Infrared Touch Probe Offers Mobility
Designed for use with numerically controlled machine tools, the wireless TT449 infrared tool touch probe is suited for tilting and rotating work tables, five-axis machining centers and other applications that require unlimited movement.
Going To Great Lengths
Heidenhain LB 382C sealed linear scales enabled Ingersoll Machine Tools to meet the customer’s requirements for the largest five-axis gantry machine in North America.
Honing On A Horizontal Machining Center
A specially designed tooling package for honing operations, along with live, on-board gaging, allows critical honing operations to move to HMCs, thereby eliminating several separate steps on multiple dedicated machines.
Infrared Touch Probe For Mechanical Activation
The TS 642 touch probe from Heidenhain features mechanical probe activation and is compatible with both the company’s older controls and current third-party controls. This is especially useful for machines that are not set up to offer touch probes as standard options, the company says.
Absolute Linear Encoder
Incorporating absolute technology to a multi-substrate scale tape linear encoder design, Heidenhain introduces the LIC 4000. Besides its capability of absolute position measurement, this encoder is characterized by its high resolution of 1 nanometer and its serial EnDat 2.
Inspection System Combines Length Gage, DRO
Heidenhain’s inspection system combines a Certo length gage, which is capable of a large measuring range including high-accuracy, nonometer-level measurement, with an ND 287 digital readout (DRO) equipped with Statistical Process Control (SPC). Common applications for this system are inspection of parts with tight tolerances and gage block calibration.
Automatically Measure A Rotary Axis
For automatic measurement of a machine’s rotary axis, Heidenhain offers KinematicsOpt, to its iTNC 530 contouring control. This software option, coupled with the company’s touch probe mounted into the CNC machine spindle, is said to increase the accuracy of the control. The automatic measurement function can measure a rotary table, tilting table or swivel head.
Probes Promote Accuracy
The TS 444 battery-free probe is charged and ready to probe within seconds. It features a built-in air turbine generator and capacitor that uses the same burst of air that cleans the part. The TS 740 high accuracy probe features ≤ 1µm accuracy with repeatability of ≤ 0.
Linear Scales Improve Lathe Accuracy
When Ford Automotive offered a contract to this Canadian automotive manufacturer for producing rear toe links, the company found its lathes simply weren’t capable of attaining the accuracy required to complete the job. In addition to enabling the company to win the contract, installing Heidenhain linear scales on the lathes reduced scrap rates and the need for frequent operator adjustments.
Scale For Applications In Varying Temperatures
Heidenhain has expanded its LIDA 400 scales series to include a version that can withstand varying temperatures. The LIDA 403 scale is available with glass or glass ceramic as its graduation carrier. Its expansion coefficient makes it useful in varying temperatures while maintaining high accuracy, the company says.
DRO Systems For Gaging
DRO Systems For GagingHeidenhain’s ND 200 series digital readouts (DROs) feature multiple inputs and a flexible configuration. Highlights of the ND 280 include a monochrome screen and standard functions that fulfill many measuring tasks, the company says. The ND 287 features a color screen and is modular in design.
Control For Cycle And CNC Lathes
The Manualplus 620 features a new NC kernel and with it, the cycle programming feature of this control enables machinists to quickly and efficiently program and machine workpieces without writing NC programs. A key addition to this control is the new programming mode “Smart.Turn”. This mode enables simple and q
Retrofits Invigorate Old Machine Tools
Retrofitting older machine tools with modern CNC, DRO and linear scales is often cheaper than buying new machines. According to two veteran retrofitters who have worked together for nearly 10 years, such retrofits can often bring outdated machines to like-new condition.
Encoder Interface Features Increased Clock Frequency
Heidenhain’s bidirectional EnDat 2. 2 encoder interface is now available with a clock frequency of 16 MHz for high-response applications with direct drives, particularly those found in the electronics industry. According to the company, the increase from 8 MHz to 16 MHz reduces access time to the position value and shortens cycle times.
Flexible Grinder Streamlines Drive Shaft Production
When a bottleneck arose from an application involving multiple setups, this shop invested in a new grinding machine with a full B-axis. Since then, it has consolidated the troublesome operation from three machines to one.
Automotive Supplier Speeds Metal Removal With Boring Mill
In an industry where one in three shops has closed during the past 10 years, Fischer Tool and Die's business is thriving. According to the Temperance, Michigan shop, this is because its growth stems from die cast work for the automotive 'new domestics,' a term for transplants.
Retrofit Using Six-Axis DRO Offers Flexibility
Following a retrofit using this six-axis readout on a partial machine rebuild of a vertical milling/boring machine, this manufacturer is now benefiting from greater flexibility on existing machinery.
Interpolating Axes On Manual Machines
A DRO makes it possible to follow circular arcs on a manual machine.
Scales And DROs Customize Lathe To Keep Power Companies Running
When a multimillion-dollar turbine generator at a power plant needs to be repaired, time is of the essence. This company rehabilitates and rebuilds existing generators.
California Specialty Parts Machinist Has No Room For Error
Much of the current equipment at this plant is German and Swiss machinery, including two Deckel mills (FP4 and FP3), a Bridgeport mill and Schaublin (10-inch) and HES (20-inch) lathes, among other various saws. In order to keep the parts as accurate as possible, the controls and DROs that are used need to be accurate and reliable.
Quicker Tool Change For Mills
This article examines a retrofitted mechanical drawbar system with a preset die spring that enables an operator to manually do what a machining center does automatically--change tools quickly.
Retrofitting Toolroom Leads To Success For St. Louis Manufacturer
This supplier of tooling to such companies as Boeing and GE Jet Aircraft, explains why he won't go without retrofitting his machines.
Automating Milling Machines Expands List Of Machinable Projects
Find out what this manufacturer chose when they decided to automate their milling machines.
The ability to import complex curves into CNCs promises to let shops finally get beyond old limitations imposed by contouring with linear interpolation. Faster and smoother cutting will be the result.
Acu-Rite Reinvents Its Products And Its Processes
It's a brave company that makes the commitment to obsolete its current product line and bring on-line a new one. As of September first, that's exactly what Acu-Rite (Jamestown, New York) will do. A leading manufacturer of digital readouts (DRO) for thirty years, the company decided in 1995 to begin a process that would replace the entire product line in a single stroke.
Do-It-Yourself Machine Inspection
Affordable technology is available that allows shops to dynamically model the accuracy characteristics of their machine tools. Here's how these inspection devices work, and what they can reveal about your production equipment.
If the position of a machine tool’s axis is measured using a rotary encoder, then potentially the ballscrew is being asked to perform two contradictory functions. The ballscrew both drives the axis into position and indicates that position—because the ballscrew lies in between the encoder and the moving element of the machine. Control technology supplier Heidenhain calls this “semiclosed-loop” operation.