Vlogs? That's the common name for video-blogs. Okuma America Corporation has launched a series of these educational videos on its YouTube channel that covers timely topics and practical tips for improving shop floor productivity.
Ford Motor Company produced this video of its process for forming sheet metal directly from the CAD model, without any need for a die.
Able Electropolishing produced this video to explain the electropolishing process, which is used for microfinishing, fatigue life improvement and even deburring in cases where the part is too delicate for more forceful finishing methods.
A team of students in Finland produced this video of their vision of how parts may be produced in the future. This entry won Fastems’ conceptual design competition held in honor of the company’s 30 years of building flexible manufacturing systems.
AMT—the Association for Manufacturing Technology produced this video to introduce its “MT Ambassadors,” young manufacturing professionals making the case to other young people about the rewards of manufacturing careers.
Siemens produced this attractive video to illustrate what it sees as a likely representation of the machining facility of the future.
As demonstrated at this Cincinnati-area shop, machines that both mill and turn shine brightest when workpieces are massive.
Does titanium justify a machine that is engineered for this metal?
M4 Sciences makes a device that uses modulation-assisted machining to prevent chips from binding during deep drilling. Called “TriboMAM,” the system oscillates the drill in and out of the cut 1,000 times per second.
Haas Automation produced this excellent video on how to cut soft jaws for turning operations. These fundamentals aren’t just for first-timers: Even those who are so experienced that they practice 80 percent of fundamentals can still benefit from a refresher on the remaining 20 percent.
Benchmarking is important to our 2013 Business Strategy Honors Program winner.
Our Shopfloor Practices Honors Program winner for 2013 thoughtfully considers the best shopfloor practices to support its advanced machining capabilities.
Rock Valley College student Sara McKee describes her interest in manufacturing and her study of manufacturing engineering technology.
Stanford engineer Debbie Sterling created a new kids toy company called Goldie Blox, which consists of a book series and construction set. The goal of this toy is to get young girls interested in engineering.
The current challenge in finding skilled manufacturing employees is probably the prelude to a much more dramatic shortage. In economies around the world, the retirement of Baby Boomers will lead to more and more retirees being supported by fewer and fewer in the workforce, until the ratio bottoms out at fewer than 2 working people for every 1 retiree.
A student project team at a community college illustrates the learning and experience involved in preparing for a manufacturing career.
This video from GE Aviation featuring company president and CEO David Joyce, as well as Greg Morris of the company’s Additive Development Center, describes the company’s plans for additive manufacturing and the advantages it sees in pursuing this technology.
This Chicago-area contract manufacturer has found success explaining his shop’s capabilities to purchasing professionals by creating a YouTube page. This video explains the shop’s latest capability: CNC Swiss-type machining.
These two videos showcase some of the technology behind the SFP1 surface finish probe option for Renishaw's Revo five-axis measuring head.
Makino’s a61nx-5E five-axis machine features an atypical pallet changing system that brings effective ergonomics to five-axis machining.
Watch video from NBC’s Today show about young people pursuing skilled work in CNC machining instead of opting for a four-year college study.
Watch an HMC perform five-axis machining using a tombstone that has multiple indexers installed.
For shops considering a move to lean manufacturing—or a recommitment to lean manufacturing—this video is a great encouragement.
Joel Neidig, technology manager at ITAMCO, talks about how machine monitoring and other MTConnect-enabled technologies have benefited this north central Indiana job shop.
Central Texas Tools moved to its current location back in 1937. The close-knit, three-generation shop uses the same belt-driven equipment as it did back then, too.
It was about a year ago that 3D printer makers Stratasys and Objet announced their plan to merge. This video from the now-united company shows a 3D-printed part made with both of the machine lines.
The maker of racing engine components produces parts that have many permutations within each product line. Here is how Jesel sets up work for cost-effective, responsive machining.
February 21 is “Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day.” Various companies and schools throughout the country are holding events, but the idea is a good one on any day of the year.
The process seen here uses trochoidal tool paths and cryogenic cooling
An engineer with GE Aviation describes the work she does and why she finds her field rewarding.
See how Emag's vertical turning center reduces "nebenzeit."
A computer program strengthens designs before they are printed.
Federated Precision describes the next industrial revolution.
Straitline Components recently automated the production of its newest product using a machine that is arguably the most versatile in the shop so far—a Doosan nine-axis multitasking turning center.
The cover of our latest Additive Manufacturing supplement shows an articulating section that used to require assembly of many metal links, until additive manufacturing made it possible to produce this moving section in one piece.
I’ve said that the toolholder is the least appreciated element in many milling processes, but the pull stud (or retention knob) is perhaps the least appreciated component of the toolholder.
Watch this short video from Sandvik Coromant to learn about the advantages of thread milling.
Injection mold maker NyproMold uses CT scanning to validate molds.
Machines with linear motors instead of ballscrews have increased productivity for one die maker.
An innovative high school vocational manufacturing program has students doing production work for paying customers.
PMI uses advanced ERP software for real-time monitoring of production flow.
L&H Industrial has a wealth of advanced large-scale machining and manufacturing capabilities.
A lot of the changes this shop made were a result of integrating a CPA mindset into a contract shop environment.
The toolholder is arguably the least appreciated element in a system for successful milling on a machining center. Watch a presentation for optimizing the interface between the cutting tool and the spindle.
Here are five key elements of this quality contract shop.
Erowa discusses workholding options for greater machining center efficiency.
Additive manufacturing offers an option for quickly creating custom tools.
XLAForm describes a process for making molds quickly by infusing a 3D printed tool.
At last week’s Rapid conference and expo in Atlanta, "The Edge Factor" producer Jeremy Bout unveiled the three winners of the reality show/design contest, “Reality Redesigned.”
Learn about the comparison between additive manufacturing and low-volume injection molding in this video presentation.
This news story is perhaps a sign of the times. This manufacturer expanded the size and capacity of its facility, but struggled to expand its workforce.
Lockheed Martin expects to reduce titanium part-production costs for the F-35 fighter by applying this additive manufacturing technology in place of forging.
This video from Fabrisonic shows ultrasonic additive manufacturing being used to produce a mold with conformal cooling channels.
Position and orientation data gathered by a 3D vision system enables this robot to remove parts randomly located in a bin.
A company that is advancing additive manufacturing as a production technology discusses why additive manufacturing is important right now.
“Reality Redesigned” judge Jeremy Bout inadvertently illustrated the value of prototyping when he tried to use his 3D printed model in production.
Various inspection and measurement resources help a moldmaker produce tooling for tiny molded parts.
A job shop owner talks about five-axis machining and feature-based programming.
The Vollmer QWD 760 features a horizontally guided wire that rotates on an E axis. An automatic probing system verifies orientation of PCD inserts before wire cutting.
This short video explains how to check the runout on a collet chuck toolholder.
This mold maker describes its use of both tilting-spindle and tilting-table five-axis machines.
Metal removal rate is high and the cut is dry. See other basic tips for milling with ceramics.
Edge Factor producer Jeremy Bout describes how design contest video entries can be submitted.
Edge Factor producer Jeremy Bout talks about the show, the latest episode and the Reality Redesigned contest.
This CAM feature allows tool paths to be defined through a process that resembles jogging the machine manually.
This toolholder takes advantage of a Swiss-type’s Y-axis motion to approach and engage the barstock from the side, which helps prevent “bird nesting.”
An interview with Harry Moser, founder of the Reshoring Initiative.
This video shows a device that enables machine tools to quickly deburr both sides of through holes in elliptical and contoured surfaces.
A Fadal VMC uses an air-driven spindle to create the logo inlay pocket into the headstock of Peavey guitars.
In this video, a hardened tool steel tire mold is milled by an air-driven high speed spindle from Air Turbine Tools.
Using an air spindle, this Fanuc robot is able to deburr castings with irregular flash.
Just a light touch is required using this device as its high speed does the cutting. Combined with low vibration and weight, this reduces the risk of stress injuries to operators.
One of our 2011 Top Shops, this manufacturer of high-performance cylinder heads has a long history of applying five-axis machining to create complex internal features.
Although this shop’s specialty is production CNC turning, its secondary milling, honing (or lapping) and grinding capabilities enable it to succeed in producing accurate hydraulic valve components and assemblies.
Bley eyes large-scale machining work.
This shop uses CNC turning, milling, gear cutting, ID and OD grinding, honing and broaching to be a done-in-one supplier of machined parts.
This shop invests in advanced CNC machines, CAD/CAM packages, CMM inspection systems and robotics to keep its value-added services cost effective for its customers.
Mazak offers its Orbitec 20 for manufacturers of valves and similar large components.
The rotating milling head is a defining feature on a turn-mill machine designed for efficient production of complex parts in low volumes.
(Sponsored Content) Dapra's 2" Mid-Feed Shell Mill video
A shop captured this footage of the way a software feature permits deep cutting in steel.
(sponsored content) Video: High-Feed Cutting 4140PH at 300 IPM with RHINO-FEED Mid-Feed Shell Mill and Inserts from Dapra.
(sponsored content) This video demonstrates Dapra's 1" Square Shoulder End Mill executing a pocketing routine in aluminum.
A shop owner describes his simple approach to evaluating cutting tool performance and finding the best parameters.
System provides flexible alternative to hard gaging near the machine tool.
VIDEO: A Jabro solid carbide end mill from Seco generates a tapered hole in white cast iron with a hardness of 60 Rc in preparation for internal threading operations.
VIDEO: A PCBN200 insert from Seco is employed to create TR55 DIN trapezoidal internal threads to Acme 2 specification in 70-rc cast white iron.
The Edge Factor’s team visits Center Rock, maker of the rock drills used to free the trapped miners in Chile.
Through-tool liquid nitrogen turns the tool into a heat sink, extending tool life.
Video from Chiron America demonstrates the company’s Multi-Profile System, which combines a machining center with in-feed and out-feed accessories so that the compact machine can mill and drill long parts.
Two mold shops describe the ways they use remote machine monitoring via video.
The cycle for heating the toolholder also includes water cooling so the toolholder finishes cool.
Quite possibly the first time a CNC job shop has figured into a major reality film production.
Relieved end mills and pre-machining of corners are two important considerations for accurate pocket machining in hard steel.
The Edge Factor is a show that will tell real stories of real CNC machining.
Come face to face with astounding manufacturing challenges.
A robot reaching into a lathe measures along the entire part length in seconds, determining whether additional machining is needed.
See a five-axis, bar-fed machining center creating a complex sample part complete from barstock.
East Texas Machine Works focuses on large-scale work. Here’s a video showing impressive boring operations on a marine component.
(Sponsored Content) The NEW Machining Calculator App from Sandvik Coromant is designed to help engineers and machinists optimize the performance of their turning, milling and drilling applications by calculating optimal cut settings based on job parameters.
A new remote spindle monitoring technology offers a way to predict spindle issues before they become major problems that adversely affect production.
A waterjet machine cuts multiple polycarbonate “splitters” used on the front facia of a Nascar race car.
Feature-to-feature accuracy for diesel camshaft segments is possible thanks to in-process probing.
In this video, one of EMAG's VTC machines grinds a camshaft using two opposing grinding wheels. Opposing the wheels in such a way cancels axial forces on the camshaft.
The capability to perform multiple operations, including backworking, makes these machines attractive for complex, short parts like this airbag component.
A Motoman SDA10D dual-arm robot (nicknamed Dexter Bot) appropriately had the honor of turning the first shovel of dirt at the groundbreaking ceremony for Motoman Robotics’ new facility in Miamisburg, Ohio.
(Sponsored Content) Buying a new machine at IMTS? Be sure to stop by the Sandvik Coromant Smart Hub first. Choosing the right tooling solutions from the start will help you pay off your new machine purchase up to one year faster. Meet with a yellow coat and get the tooling solutions to think smart, work smart and earn smart.
You have to be there.
Die Tech & Engineering describes how palletization and five-axis machining work together to deliver efficiency.
Die Tech & Engineering uses its scanning to CMM to avoid errors by inspecting electrodes prior to EDM.
This footage shows two-sided milling for fast production of square blanks.
This footage shows grinding of opposite surfaces at the same time.
This footage demonstrates rotary surface grinding of large parts.
This five-axis, two-spindle machining center shows how multitasking machines can be used for production applications.
(Sponsored Content) Coming to IMTS 2010 in Chicago? Planning on catching a Cubs game? Well forget it, they’re traveling that week. But be sure to visit the Sandvik Coromant Smart Hub at IMTS to meet with a yellow coat and get the tooling solutions to think smart, work smart and earn smart.
(Sponsored Content) This video demonstrates Dapra's 1" Toroid End Mill executing a pocketing routine in steel. The material is 4140PH (30 Rc), and the machine tool used is a Fadal 4020 with a 40-taper spindle with 0.100" DOC.
This footage shows the effect of a techology that speeds and simplifies center drilling by oscillating the drill through many pecks per second.
(Sponsored Content) Pivot 180 generates airflow 100 feet out, enveloping a 180 degree arc from side to side – a coverage area of an impressive 12,000 square feet. Pivot 180 installs on a column or other vertical structure proving the perfect air movement solution for areas with ceiling obstructions or tight spaces.
... not to mention grinding with air. Thanks to high speed spindles powered by shop air, this job shop expands the work its VMCs can do.
Custom engineered workholding fixtures are key to the effectiveness of an unusual Automated Production System (APS) recently installed at Kurt Manufacturing. It helps that one of this company’s specialties is custom engineered workholding fixtures.
(Sponsored Content) This video demonstrates Dapra's 1" Toroid End Mill executing a pocketing routine in steel. The material is 4140PH (30 Rc), and the machine tool used is a Fadal 4020 with a 40-taper spindle with .030" DOC.
Utilizing technology developed for its Revo measurement system, Renishaw says its PH20 probe head offers “head touches” for rapid touch-trigger measurement and fast, infinite, five-axis positioning for optimal feature access.
This intricate machining cycle on a CNC Swiss-type lathe reveals how a turning center capable of X-, Y- and Z-axis motion in milling can be effective even when the part is not round. The part, a spinal hook, does not feature anything like the axial symmetry typical of a turned part. Video length: 6.0 minutes
This video demonstrates Dapra's 1" Toroid End Mill executing the helical interpolation of a 1.75" diameter hole to a depth of 1.25". The material is H13, and the machine tool used is a Fadal 4020 with a 40-taper spindle.
A maker of injection molds for high-appearance-quality parts describes the machine tool, software and strategy this shop uses to apply 3+2 machining.
Milling complex forms in hardened tool steel involves more than just fast, light cuts, says this maker of medical-related injection molds. Here are some of the ingredients of an effective hard milling process.
Video: Spanish machine tool builder Ibarmia offers a moving column machine that has an interesting table-within-a-table configuration.
Part probing isn’t performed as often on turn-mills as it is on conventional machine tools. It does offer advantages for multitasking machines, though. Includes video.
High spindle speed is not needed for high productivity, particularly with the right choice of cutting tool types. Techniques described in this tutorial video relate to plunge roughing, high feed milling and slotting.
Even in aluminum, plunge roughing can be an effective way to realize high productivity.
Footage shows roughing at 48 cubic inch per minute on a standard-speed machining center.
Video shows a multitasking machine milling a turbine blade in a cycle that few machining centers could replicate.
Demonstation illustrates the kind of metal removal rate that is possible in aluminum at dynamically stable speeds.
This shop is in the early stages of integrating Internet-based training tailored specifically to the brand of Swiss-type lathes it uses. The goal is to bring prospective employees up to speed quicker while enabling existing employees to progress to more advanced roles in the shop.
This video of machining Inconel at a fast metal removal rate shows the effect of constant-engagement-angle milling.
This video of machining titanium at a fast metal removal rate shows the effect of constant-engagement-angle milling.
Here is an introduction to machining center spindles designed for high speeds, with practical tips for using these high speed spindles effectively.
The answer does not have to do with any particular speed. It has to do with how that speed is used.
This video clip from a MasterTask Training instructional course describes how to set the X-axis geometry offset for a boring bar on a Tsugami Swiss-type lathe.
Manual loading of heavy housings was this manufacturer’s prime bottleneck. It had limited experience with automated cells, but decided to install a big one. A look at the manufacturer’s $13 million cell reveals an intriguing layout and blend of technologies.
Although automated manufacturing cells typically consist of standard products such as CNC machine tools, robots, pallets and cell control software, almost all of these systems rely on inventive concepts developed for the particular application. These "good ideas" often account for the outstanding productivity and flexibility of these systems. This article looks at several of the "good ideas" that characterize a cell comprised of seven wire EDM units and a robot on a rail transfer unit.
In high speed machining of die/mold steels, the heat has a more beneficial effect than the role it plays in conventional cuts.
This video provides both the argument and methodology for performing offline balancing of tool/toolholder assemblies for high speed machining centers.
Transfer machines that are flexible rather than dedicated can run large quantities without dedicating labor or floorspace. (Includes video.)
Windmills are fantastic, producing energy from an endless source without waste. Their increasing importance as a power supply is welcomed. We have great solution examples for: Connecting ring, Min shaft, Hub, Ring gear and planetary carrier.
Learn how Designcraft applies CNC machining for prototyping.
VIDEO. This firm that is focused on product development has invested heavily in additive production technology such as laser sintering, as well as the “subtractive” technology of CNC machining. See how Morris uses both in this narrated tour of the company.
While aluminum molds are commonly used to create prototypes or to serve as stopgap bridge tooling, they are starting to receive greater attention for production work. This shop’s approach to creating aluminum molds in one day to three weeks is the same for each of these situations.
In a tough business climate, it is even more important to optimize every step; from machining processes to tooling solutions, insert and grade selections.
To be prepared for high-volume output when the change comes. This latest release of new products comes with a vast line of solutions with your needs in focus. Thousands of new products; all designed to meet the demands of today. Prepare to take large steps.
Through direct CNC machining of molds and cores, this supplier of cast and machined parts skips the pattern-making step that would otherwise be fundamental to casting. The result is weeks of lead-time savings for complex parts that are needed in a hurry.
VIDEO. How you use the machining center is just as important as the quality of the machine itself. This tutorial covers machining center leveling, alignment and temperature—as well as toolchange and setup procedures.
VIDEO. Part of Renishaw’s automated production process, this turning operation uses tools affixed to the machining center’s table while the workpiece is mounted in the spindle.
The machining center in this automated production process inspects its own work and updates its own positioning. Probing a known, traceable reference makes this possible.
VIDEO. Have you considered milling holes through helical ramping instead of drilling them? This brief animated video covers the high points, including tool diameter selection and the potential for savings.
VIDEO. On a ballnose end mill, the depth of cut determines the actual cutting diameter. This effect, along with the related concept of chip thinning, will influence the optimal choices of spindle speed and feed rate.
VIDEO. In a lean machining facility, grouping horizontal machining centers close together allows a small number of operators to use the machines efficiently.
VIDEO. Valve maker Richards Industries took a part that used to machined at one machine tool and added an additional setup on a vertical machining center. Higher throughput was the result.
VIDEO. For this valve maker, a part that might have been machined in one setup on a multitasking machine tool is instead machined with greater throughput using a series of simpler machines. Company personnel explain.
Form tools are traditionally associated with non-CNC machines, but in certain applications they make sense on modern machines as well.
See how this Delphos, Ohio, screw machine shop has saved considerable time by making its process on the shop floor more lean.
Here is a training film a job shop developed to help its employees understand 5S.
The ability to measure tool offsets while the tool is spinning can improve both the accuracy and performance of the process in various ways.
This manufacturer’s use of live-tool lathes overcomes labor cost in various ways. One of the latest sources of savings involves bringing another operation—hobbing—into these machines. INCLUDES VIDEO.
Here is one custom machine builder’s system for producing a 40-foot part that has to be passed through the turning center and out the other side. INCLUDES VIDEO.
This footage illustrates how the toolholder taper is measured in a test designed to capture the retention knob’s effect on the shape of the toolholder taper.
This footage shows a workpiece gripper that enables a machine to load and unload workpieces on its own.
Machining internal threads in difficult materials is challenging, especially when hole diameters are small. Thread milling offers advantages for these applications that are important to consider.
Smooth finish comes from balanced cutting parameters, as this video explains.
This footage on a small drilling machining also includes machining with full-size tools in the same cycle.
Video shows the smooth, quiet, rapid motion characteristic of effective micromilling.
Video captured with a microscope shows that a full-scale machining center is capable of micro-size milling work.
The Makino EDFH1 is a fine-hole EDM machine capable of machining holes as small as 10 microns in diameter using a 6-micron-diameter electrode. One user of this machine is Hummingbird Precision Machine in Lacey, Washington. This video taken at Hummingbird shows how the electrode is loaded.
Video captured with a microscope shows micromachined part.
A wire EDM machine designed for micromachining uses negative air pressure to thread the fine wire.
When milling with tiny tools, changing the length-to-diameter ratio can significantly change the cutting parameters it is possible to achieve.
Linear motors take the place of ballscrews on this machine performing high speed cutting of aluminum at a job shop near Atlanta.
An alternative to the typical profiler design, this machine saves labor by allowing chips to fall out of the way.
Machining animation from Boeing illustrates effective techniques for titanium workpieces. This simulation also shows finishing of the floor of the pocket.
Machining animation from Boeing illustrates effective techniques for titanium workpieces. This video shows material machined out of the corners prior to finishing.
Machining animation from Boeing illustrates effective techniques for titanium workpieces.
If the position of a machine tool’s axis is measured using a rotary encoder, then potentially the ballscrew is being asked to perform two contradictory functions. The ballscrew both drives the axis into position and indicates that position—because the ballscrew lies in between the encoder and the moving element of the machine. Control technology supplier Heidenhain calls this “semiclosed-loop” operation.
A tool with many flutes can be effective for achieving a productive metal removal rate in titanium, where speed and chip load are constrained. See how quickly the chips accumulate in this video.
These animations show why an arc in the same direction as tool rotation is effective. The strategy is relevant for entering material from the edge, as well as for pocketing.
The video compares a milling pass that chatters to one that is stable. Because the stable speed permits greater depth of cut, productivity increases.
This video footage showing the machining of a massive crankshaft suggests some of the possibilities of turn-milling. Not all shops realize possibilities such as this even on their own smaller-scale turn-mill equipment.
A complement to the turn-mill footage, this video clip shows a turning operation for a massive crankshaft.
Minimum quantity lubrication does not require a special machine tool or special tooling. This video makes the case for MQL and describes how to apply it effectively.
Bryco Machine recently reorganized its shop floor to implement a leaner process. Here is a narrated tour through the shop.
Here is a different way to think about the slice in your golf game. This footage comes from a Web site exploring the lighter side of waterjet machining.
This part machined on a CNC Swiss-type lathe includes 0.008-inch slots machined through precision sawing. The lathe performing this work uses linear motors in place of ballscrews.
View this video to see clearly how a CNC Swiss-type lathe works. On a machine of this type, the guide bushing moves the part along the axial direction so the tool can remain close to the point of support. Thread whirling is one of the operations in this machining cycle producing a bone screw. Video Length: 3.25 minutes
This video shows a machining cycle on a CNC Swiss-type lathe that takes advantage of more sophisticated features involving the subspindle. The subspindle driving workpiece during the last machining operations reduces the length of remnant that has to be left behind.
To mill thin walls in aluminum using fast light cuts, machine on alternating sides of the wall all the way down, jumping the wall with each new pass.
This approach to rough milling replaces straight lines with “curlicue” moves of constant radius.
This video demonstrates hole making. Hole making often involves sequential operations such as drill-then-tap. Combination tools that perform these operations simultaneously can eliminate tool changes, saving cycle time. Many combination tools call for helical interpolation. The video shows the same series of hole
A machining center able to maintain precise control at high feed rates makes it practical to machine holes through helical milling as an alternative to drilling.
This video clip illustrates micromilling at a high tool L:D ratio.
A vacuum system for the machining center draws particulate through the center of the tool.
Video shows the performance of coated carbide, diamond-coated, PCD and veined PCD tools in carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Part one in a four-part series.
Video shows the performance of coated carbide, diamond-coated, PCD and veined PCD tools in carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Part two in a four-part series.
Video shows the performance of coated carbide, diamond-coated, PCD and veined PCD tools in carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Part three in a four-part series.
Video shows the performance of coated carbide, diamond-coated, PCD and veined PCD tools in carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Part four in a four-part series.
Milling cuts out features of a composite structure, then cuts the structure itself out of the setup.
Slow-motion video shows the effect of a micograin tool coating in drilling CFRP.
This video from machine tool maker CMS shows high speed five-axis milling and drilling of composite component.
Here is video of the five-axis motion required to trim a relatively simple composite component.
Curt Reed uses advanced grinding techniques in the pursuit of short-run, sub-micron work that other shops can’t perform or won’t attempt. His shop’s commitment to its customers is reflected in the high level of equipment sophistication and applied grinding acumen.