The IR3 3D printer pauses printing to place a wheel assembly into the remote-controlled car it is building in this image, taken from a promotional video on the project’s Kickstarter page.
Remember the Strati car from IMTS? The car chassis and body were 3D printed on the show floor with a Cincinnati Incorporated Big Area Additive Manufacturing Machine (BAAM) out of carbon-reinforced ABS plastic. The printing phase took 44 hours over the first two days of the show, and was followed by a day of milling to refine the print. A team led by Local Motors then spent several more days integrating the non-printed mechanical components such as the motor and battery to make the car drivable.
Those mechanical components probably won’t be produced by a 3D printer in the near future, but what if they could be installed by the printer? That would eliminate the need for a human assembly stage, possibly saving time, and open the door for integrating components into areas that may be inaccessible in the final print. Furthermore, it would mean the ability to produce a fully functional product in one setup.
That was the idea behind Buzz Technology UK’s Industrial Revolution III (IR3) 3D printer, which picks and places non-printable components such as wheels, motors and rechargeable battery packs within a 3D-printed build. Development of the printer itself was shelved following a Kickstarter campaign that went unfunded earlier this year, but the company now plans to offer its pick-and-place technology as a retrofit kit for new and existing 3D printers. Though intended mainly for consumer use, it’s easy to see how this print-and-assemble concept might also be applied for production additive applications, such as building wiring into a prosthetic hand or audio speaker components into custom headphones.
Paulson Training Programs provides training content and services for the plastics industry, but much of what it has to say in this knowledge center is relevant to CNC machining facilities as well. The company points out that there is a bias among manufacturers toward investing in machines rather than investing in employee training. Why? One reason is the possibility that the trained employee might leave. However, another reason is the fact that the ROI for new equipment purchases is much easier to calculate. The costs of not training are hard to see. However, as Paulson points out, the facility that is not paying for training is probably paying for the lack of training, because those costs are very real.
For example, how much income is lost by accepting inefficient production as normal? Or by frequently scrapping parts or making corrections because of recurring mistakes? Paulson created these charts to illustrate the cost of unnecessary cycle time, downtime and rejects (again, tailored to the plastics industry, but still relevant). These are the ongoing costs that an investment in training can overcome.
For more about training as it relates to CNC machining facilities, visit our Training & Personnel Zone. Also, read this article about a job shop that reduced remachining, rework and rejects by significantly increasing its attention to training.
After registering for the event, attendees gathered in the lobby of Ingersoll Cutting Tools in Rockford, Illinois, where a sampling of the company’s products are on display.
I recently had the opportunity to attend the Liebherr Gear Seminar held at Ingersoll Cutting Tools’ U.S. headquarters in Rockford, Illinois. The two-day event was well attended, with representatives of many of the country’s top gear manufacturers on hand as well as industry giants such as Caterpillar, John Deere and 3M.
Nine presentations were made during the course of the event. I particularly enjoyed “Liebherr Automation Solutions” by Kevin Heise, who presented case studies of installations he’s managed in manufacturing and assembly operations around the world. When Mr. Heise and his team are involved in the planning stages of a new cell or production line, they tailor their proposals to meet the company’s specific needs, resulting in increased efficiency and throughput.
Additional presentations included “Innovative Gear Cutting Concepts and Technologies” by Markus Grebe of Ingersoll, “Metrology Choices for Gear Makers” by Andy Woodward of Wenzel America, “Current Trends in Gear Shaping—Efficient Machining of Gears with an Interference Contour” by Scott Yoders of Liebherr Gear Technology and Higher Efficiency and Quality by Hob Design” and “Higher Efficiency and Quality by Hob Design” by Juergen Friedrich of Gebr. Saacke GmbH & Co. KG. A tour of the Ingersoll facility was also provided, along with a hobbing demo featuring the Liebherr LC 500.
The presentations were quite informative, and the schedule allowed for plenty of time to ask follow-up questions, of which attendees took full advantage. I would encourage anyone interested in networking with colleagues and learning from a wide variety of gearing experts to be sure and attend this event the next time it’s being held.
Chuck Elder, president of Ingersoll Cutting Tools, gave a keynote address opening the two-day session attended by many of the country’s top gear manufacturers.
Every two years, cutting tool and carbide specialist Horn invites customers, distributors, suppliers and the industrial press to Tübingen, Germany for its Technology Days event. This year, from June 17-19, more than 3,000 guests participated. They had much to learn about because Horn is in a growth mode. Its production facilities and office space are growing. Its product lines are growing. Its workforce is growing. And its technical knowledge base is growing as well.
Here are some of the highlights of the company news revealed at this event.
Twice As Much Production Space
Horn’s third plant in Tübingen will be ready to occupy at the end of 2016.
Horn is adding 12,000 m² of new production in the near vicinity of Tübingen, a university town in the Swabia region of Germany, not far from Stuttgart. By the time it is ready for occupation at the end of 2016, a total of 55 million euros will have been invested in the new site, which is located close to the existing production facilities. This investment represents 30 million euros in the building and 25 million in production technology, which the company says now establishes the state of art in tooling and carbide production.
The two-story production hall will cover a total surface area of 15,000 m². Toolholder production, the coating department and logistics will occupy the additional space when they move into the new building at the end of 2016. The future logistics center will offer three times the capacity of the existing one so that customer delivery can be expedited. The production range currently includes more than 20,000 different types of standard tooling items. On top of that, more than 120,000 customized tooling solutions have been supplied to date. Every year, around 96,000 production orders are processed and approximately nine million inserts are produced in batches of 90 pieces (on average) with a 97 percent degree of automation, the company reports.
About 100 new employees have been added in the last year. In anticipation of the new building’s completion and the extra capacity that it will provide, Horn expects to create additional jobs in the years to come.
New Office Building Announced
Initial plan for Horn’s new office building.
A new office building will be constructed next to the main factory and existing office building. The design features six levels with a total of 3,500 m² of usable floor space. It will provide offices, meeting rooms and seminar rooms for customer training. Cost of the new office building is estimated at 15 million euros.
Commenting on these plans, managing director Lothar Horn said: "We are investing in our future; our customers especially will see the advantages as we continue to focus on quicker delivery, quality, innovation and precision. So too will our employees, benefiting from a first-class working environment with modern buildings, machinery and equipment.”
Modular Grooving System Expanded
The type 842 cartridges offer a high level of rigidity.
Horn’s range of product offerings is always being renewed and enlarged. The product announcements made during Technology Days were essentially a snapshot of the most significant developments being released at the moment. For example, one of the tooling areas in which Horn has a substantial presence is in modular grooving systems for grooving and parting on lathes and other turning equipment.
Now the company is expanding its grooving system by adding a type 842 cartridge system, which features smaller dimensions for machining smaller workpieces. The system is suitable for parting off various grades of steel and features high rigidity and an efficient cooling concept. The 842 cartridges form part of the 940 modular grooving system, which comprises a basic holder, a grooving tool holder and a cartridge. The key advantages for users lie in the flexible component combinations. The grooving toolholders—which are available in different lengths according to the type of machine and application—are connected to the basic holder.
Specially designed for use on lathes with smaller work areas, the cartridge can be screwed from both sides. The type S100 cutting edge is available with different widths, geometries and coatings to suit the application. The screw clamping device of the cutting edge enables tools to be changed with a high level of repeatable accuracy. The grooving tool features an internal coolant supply with auxiliary coolant flow provided from below and clamping finger coolant flow provided from above. As a result, the jet coolant stream acts directly on the cutting edge for optimum effectiveness, the company says.
Processing Lead-Free Brass
Tools with mono-crystalline diamonds are used for the high polish processing of lead-free brass.
An example of Horn’s technical acumen was apparent in its discussion of new tooling for machining lead-free brass. As background to its tooling developments, the company noted that in order to improve their machinability, copper materials like brass have always been alloyed with lead. However, legislation in many parts of the world points toward a broad prohibition of the use of lead. Unfortunately, dispensing with lead reduces the machinability of these materials. Increased tool wear due to adhesion and material smearing, the formation of long stringy chips, and reductions in process reliability and productivity are the consequence.
For lead-free brass materials, the general rule applies that higher specific cutting forces and tool temperatures are encountered. Heavy material buildup on the chip surface and on the open surface typically results in the tearing out of TiAlN layers in insert coatings. This condition exposes the hard metal substrate. Sharp-edged and coated edges are also subject to types of wear such as micro-chunking caused by the strong tendency toward adhesion of the lead-free copper materials in addition to the aggressive machining forces.
In comparison to TiAlN coatings, company research shows that diamond coatings or diamond cutting segments contribute to a significantly smoother surface, lower frictional forces, a much-reduced tendency toward adhesion and significantly greater heat conductivity. In addition to this, diamond coatings or diamond edges possess exceptionally abrasive wear resistance due to their high degree of hardness, so that they are also ideally suited for dry processing. The cutting speeds obtainable are many times those of TiAlN-coated edges.
Diamond-coated edges and segmented cutting substances like PKD, CVD-diamond and MKD have proven themselves in this application. The latter is unsurpassed for producing highly precise, highly reflective surfaces. Depending upon the copper alloy or type of processing, PKD or CVD-diamond prove to be the cutting substance of choice. The various PKD types are ideal for cutting geometries in custom-ground form tools. CVD-diamond edges offer the highest degree of hardness, and are most suitable for highly sharp cutting and laser-formed chip breakers. These improve chip breakage for dry processing even with a reduced chip thickness, thus producing superior surface finishes and minimal burr formation.
Based on this extensive R & D effort, Horn has responded to the requirements of machining lead-free copper alloys and, with its extensive cutting substance program, offers a variety of customized, safe, productive and economical solutions.
Scott Fosdick is the new head of Market Region Americas for GF Machining Solutions, which is headquartered in Lincolnshire (Chicagoland), Illinois. Scott was appointed to this position in March 2015, taking over for former region president Glynn Fletcher. I had the opportunity to meet Scott and get acquainted at the company’s “Solutions Days” open house June 17-19. He hosted a breakfast for visiting members of the metalworking press on the first day of the event.
Although this was my first time to meet Scott, I am familiar with the GF Machining Solutions brand and the technology labels it represents. These include Agie Charmilles (EDM and laser texturing), Mikron (high-performance milling), System 3R (automation and workholding), Leichti (five-axis milling machines designed to produce blades and blisks for aircract engines and power generating turbines) and Step-Tec (machine tool spindles for moldmaking, production and aerospace). Scott, I learned, certainly knows these products, especially the Agie Charmilles line, from his long stint with Agie Charmilles in technical service in Japan, and then as head service manager for Asia. He also served as president of Agie Charmilles South China for a number of years. Starting in May 2013, he was Market Segment Manager for Aerospace and Automotive in Asia, before his recent promotion to the top position in the Americas region. It is safe to say he understands GF Machining Solutions’ technology from the inside out.
Scott briefly discussed his vision for the direction GF Machining Solutions is taking as manufacturing evolves in this region, particularly in the United States. For example, the growing shortage of skilled machinists and moldmakers is creating a demand for a technical partnership in which his company can provide a comprehensive solution, not simply supply machine tools. The company is stepping up its involvement with training programs at schools and universities, he said. Likewise, there is growing interest in complete solutions for specific, dedicated applications such as turbine blade machining with EDM and tire mold production. Service and support remains a high priority. Manufacturers with production facilities located around the world want service and support at an equally high level everywhere so that local operations such as moldmaking are consistently supported across the board. Scott also noted that the emerging industrial internet of things and trend to data-driven manufacturing are accelerating the company’s development of intelligent sensors, tracking and monitoring software and MTConnect-enabled capabilities.
Of course, breakfast with Scott was only the beginning of my visit to the Lincolnshire headquarters. The day also included a thorough tour of the company’s showroom and demo area, where the range of machining solutions was well represented. The slideshow presents the highlights of this tour, at least the ones I was able to catch with my camera.
Some key things that were reinforced during my tour are worth mentioning. The company's line of high-performance Mikron milling machines is remarkably broad and likely deserves more attention for high-end applications. This is tough because the wire and sinker EDMs, and now the laser texturing machines, can steal the show when exhibited alongside the milling machines.
However, seeing them together is important because these are complementary technologies, especially for mold makers. Nonetheless, the Mikron milling machines are stars in their own right, serving demanding applications in aerospace, medical, dental and electronics where proficiency in five-axis machining is required. No doubt the most specialized of the offerings demonstrated during this customer event was the technology from Leichti Engineering, the Swiss firm that GF Machining Solutions acquired in 2014. Leichti Engineering is a leading developer of five-axis milling machine for the blades and blisks relied on by manufacturers of aircraft engines and power generating turbines.
I'm glad to know Scott now, and glad to know GF Machining Solutions even better.